Scientific opinion of the Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain

Mercury exists in the environment as elemental mercury (metallic), inorganic mercury and organic mercury (primarily methylmercury). Elemental and inorganic mercury released into the air from
mining, smelting, industrial activities, combustion of fossil fuels, is deposited to soil, water and thereby to sediments where the mercury is transformed into methylmercury.

Methylmercury bioaccumulates and biomagnifies along the food chain, particularly in the aquatic food chain; longlived carnivorous fish and marine mammals exhibiting the highest contents. The
toxicity and toxicokinetics of mercury in animals and humans depends on its chemical form. Elemental mercury is volatile and mainly absorbed through the respiratory tract, whereas its
absorption through the gastrointestinal tract is negligible. Gastrointestinal absorption of inorganic mercury is in the 10-30% range. Following absorption, inorganic mercury distributes mainly
to the kidneys and, to a lesser extent, to the liver. The critical effect of inorganic mercury is renal damage. In animals, as in humans, methylmercury and its salts are readily absorbed in the
gastrointestinal tract (>80%). Absorbed methylmercury is widely distributed to all tissues, although the largest deposition occurs in the kidney. Excretion of unchanged methylmercury occurs
predominantly in the faeces through biliary excretion. The enterohepatic cycle results in a long half-life for this compound compared to inorganic mercury. Methylmercury is able to cross the
blood-brain and the placental barriers. As a consequence, the nervous system is the primary site of toxicity in animals and humans. In humans, effects on neurological development have been
observed in children of mothers orally exposed to methylmercury. Animal studies confirmed these neurodevelopmental effects in foetus of dams exposed to methylmercury in the diet.

A substantial number of feed materials have been analysed for total mercury in recent years within the EU Member States, and for the large majority, the concentrations were below the maximum
level specified in the feedingstuffs legislation. The most common source of mercury in feed materials is fishmeal, however, in this category, no sample exceeded the maximum level of 0.5 mg/kg.
In contrast, approximately 8% of the complete feedingstuffs for fish exceeded the maximum level of 0.1 mg/kg. The relatively few data available on the speciation of mercury in fishmeals
indicate that it is mainly present as methylmercury. The most sensitive domestic animal species to methylmercury toxicity are cats and mink. Based on the available data on the occurrence of
total mercury in feed materials and complete feedingstuffs, it is unlikely that these species will be exposed to toxic levels.

The maximum concentration reported in farmed salmonids is approximately five times lower than the EU maximum level for mercury in fish for human consumption (500 mg/kg for salmonids). This
mercury concentration in salmonids would allow weekly consumption of two fish meals, as recommended by nutritionists, without appreciable health risk. The maximum level for fish feed is
sufficient to ensure that contamination levels in farmed salmonids pose no appreciable risk to consumers, but the validity of the maximum level need to be ascertained for other farmed fish.

Opinion (PDF)

[1] For citation purposes: Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food chain on a request from the European Commission on mercury as undesirable substance in feed, The EFSA
Journal (2008) 654, 1-74.

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